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]]>In the beginning, the majority of the Famous Mathematicians came from ancient Egypt and Greece. As these were the centers of modern learning for the time, it makes sense that the cradle of knowledge bloomed in both of these locations. Perhaps the most known of these Famous Mathematicians was Euclid. In the 4th century B.C, this expert literally wrote the book of mathematical theory. His History of Mathematics was long considered the full authority when it comes to mathematical ideas and focused on the study of Euclidean geometry which has many real world uses. Another of the Famous Mathematicians to come from this area was Pythagoras. The best of his math discoveries was the creation of the Pythagorean Theorem and the idea of the relationship of numbers to life. His opinion was that all things in life were governed by numbers, a theory that created the learning community of the Pythagoreanism, which studied normal math in relation to music, botany, and other areas. Another classic thinker of the ancient times was Aristotle. While his main claim to fame came in the realm of philosophy, his writings concerning physics are still considered classics. He wrote about the science of motion as well as being responsible for the classic text on causality.

As mathematical thought moved into modern eras, the famous math experts were more concerned with other concepts. One example of this is the great Isaac Newton. Famously responsible for discovering gravity, Newton’s works have also been said to have moved forward the study of every branch of mathematics. In addition to his explanation of the law of gravity, Newton also created the three laws of motion. The explanation of these concepts successfully illustrated such baffling concepts as why the planet turns and how objects are able to travel through space. The most famous of the modern mathematicians is the world renowned Albert Einstein. His greatest work was clearly the general theories of relativity and special relativity, which set the base for future mathematicians to study the principles of light and outer space.

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]]>In the early times, most of the Math History began in the Near East area of the world. The earliest texts that have been found describing Math concepts are dated to the Babylonian times. As early as 1900 B.C., mathematicians of this era were looking at how the field could be used to understand the world around them. Egyptian mathematicians were also active at this time and later writings can be found in the historical texts of Egypt. The use of the Arabic language allowed the thinkers of this time to share their information and develop a consistent theory of mathematical concerns in the region. While these beginnings were enough to set a foundation for the study of Math, the course of Math History would not start to grow by leaps and bounds until the boom of Greek society. Famous thinkers from Greece included Plato, Aristotle, and Archimedes, just to name a few. These mathematical experts looked at the further use of numbers and how they related to everyday life. As Greece was often considered to be the center of thought, the language of the country became familiar in many close regions, making it the de facto language for mathematics.

At the same time as these Near East developments were happening, scholars in the Far East were also learning about Math. Although there are few Math History texts from the earliest of times, Chinese mathematicians are thought to have discovered a completely different way to think about the subject. Using a decimal positional notation system, the idea of Mathematics in China was demonstrated by the seminal book, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, around the year of 180 A.D. The Indian Math History was also popular, focusing on how the subject could be used to explain astronomy.

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]]>In the beginning, the majority of the Famous Mathematicians came from ancient Egypt and Greece. As these were the centers of modern learning for the time, it makes sense that the cradle of knowledge bloomed in both of these locations. Perhaps the most known of these Famous Mathematicians was Euclid. In the 4th century B.C, this expert literally wrote the book of mathematical theory. His History of Mathematics was long considered the full authority when it comes to mathematical ideas and focused on the study of Euclidean geometry which has many real world uses. Another of the Famous Mathematicians to come from this area was Pythagoras. The best of his math discoveries was the creation of the Pythagorean Theorem and the idea of the relationship of numbers to life. His opinion was that all things in life were governed by numbers, a theory that created the learning community of the Pythagoreanism, which studied normal math in relation to music, botany, and other areas. Another classic thinker of the ancient times was Aristotle. While his main claim to fame came in the realm of philosophy, his writings concerning physics are still considered classics. He wrote about the science of motion as well as being responsible for the classic text on causality.

As mathematical thought moved into modern eras, the famous math experts were more concerned with other concepts. One example of this is the great Isaac Newton. Famously responsible for discovering gravity, Newton’s works have also been said to have moved forward the study of every branch of mathematics. In addition to his explanation of the law of gravity, Newton also created the three laws of motion. The explanation of these concepts successfully illustrated such baffling concepts as why the planet turns and how objects are able to travel through space. The most famous of the modern mathematicians is the world renowned Albert Einstein. His greatest work was clearly the general theories of relativity and special relativity, which set the base for future mathematicians to study the principles of light and outer space.

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]]>Each civilization made its own unique mathematical discoveries. Areas that are known for having had a particularly vast knowledge of mathematics and mathematical principles include Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, China, India, Rome, and the Islamic countries. These are the areas most widely studied for mathematical understanding today. People from these civilizations invented algebra, trigonometry, fractions, basic number theorems, the understanding of negative numbers, the understanding of 0 and infinity, square roots, units of measurement, calendars, and much, much more.

Obviously, then, mathematics are not just some newfangled invention made solely wit the purpose of torturing young and disinterested students. Instead, this is an ancient study that has fascinated people from all generations and civilizations. Some speculate that mathematics was a part of the search for God, the meaning of life, or for order in the universe. The more cynical explain ancient people’s interest in mathematics as a simple, natural curiosity that led to discovery. However one chooses to view it, there’s no doubting that the ancient people’s mathematical understanding was truly amazing and inspired.

Today students are encouraged to learn about this history, both in school and by visiting sites like ours, Arithmetic.com. The reason for this is because students can learn much about other cultures and other time periods by doing so. Furthermore, students can gain an appreciation for their own mathematical studies and for all of the hard work of their forefathers by studying this history. Best of all, they also realize that we would not have all of today’s modern conveniences and technologies without the sacrifices and contributions of the ancient people and each generation.

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]]>The earliest Indian mathematical documents were written in Sanskrit. They were composed of rules and various problems, believed to have been used by students. Also included in such documents were larger sections of text detailing how the problems were to be solved and basic theories behind them, believed to be for more advanced students. The answers to the problems were often printed at the very bottom of the tablets. Of course, these tablets did not appear until 500 BCE. Before that time, it is speculated that all mathematical communication took place orally. The Bahkshali Manuscript is believed to be the oldest Indian mathematical document dating back to the 7th century BCE.

The biggest advancements in Indian mathematics did not take place until much later, however, when the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was formed in 1300. The school was started by Madhava of Sangamagrama and included several reputable mathematicians and astronomers of the day. While many of these names are known, just as many are thought to be unknown as well. Probably the most important understanding or discovery to arise out of the school was the expansion of trigonometric functions. Along with this came the first proofs for the sin, the cosine, and its inverse tangent. These are all mathematical principles still in use today.

The contributions that these ancient peoples made are incredibly important in that they paved the way for modern mathematics and, in many cases, are still involved in mathematical studies today. Researchers are still trying to determine how the Indian’s knowledge of mathematics came about and if there are any mathematical principles from the time that are unheard of or unknown today. Those who have an interest in this fascinating history can learn much from reading the information here at Arithmetic.com. At the very least, all individuals should be grateful for the mathematical contributions of the Indian people. Without them, it is very doubtful that we would be where we are today or have much of our technology.

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]]>Based on the work of modern day researchers, it is widely believed that Greek Math History and Greek history in general dates as far back as 2800 BC. The Greeks were a widespread people, living in Asia Minor, the area we know as Greece today, the south of Italy, Sicily, Rhodes, Crete, North Africa, and Delos. There were several ancient schools of Greek mathematics. The first is known as the Ionian School and was founded by Thales who was born around 640 BC. The school focused on philosophy and science but also did much for mathematical study. In fact, today the school is credited with being the first to study and understand deductive proofs in mathematics. Next would come the Pythagorean School, named for its founder, Pythagoras. This school made several mathematical contributions and discoveries in the areas of proportion, plane geometry, solid geometry, number theory, and proof theory. Schools that followed include the Eleatic School, the Sophist School, the Platonic School, the School of Exodus, and finally the School of Aristotle.

The School of Aristotle is the school that deserves the most discussion here at Arithmetic.com, because it made the most important contributions to modern mathematical understandings. Here, the culmination of years of study was brought to a head. Students and teachers worked to clarify and better understand such advanced mathematical studies and principles as zeno’s paradoxes, dichotomy, trisection, and much more. Without this school and the schools leading up to it, we would not have our modern studies of algebra, geometry, or trigonometry.

Interestingly enough, algebra was a difficult area of study for the Greeks, mainly because they did not have a practical way of writing down letters or numbers. Their understanding of algebra then would come much later than their understanding of geometry, though both would feed into and off of one another. The Greeks also worked to make important mathematical proofs that would later be the foundation of modern mathematics. They used their mathematics practically, making strides in their culture in rationality and architecture. Their work, however, was much more far reaching than they ever could have imagined and is still important.

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]]>As mentioned above, “formal” mathematics did not appear in the civilization until 3000 BC, but records of very basic mathematics can be found dating as far back as 2690 CA. The formula for finding a mastaba’s slope has been found engraved on walls, and the cubit unit of measurement is believed to have been in use at this time. It is speculated that Egyptian Math History might go back even further than this, since there had to be a basis for these mathematical capabilities. There is no proof of this, however, but researchers are working to find it.

Researchers in the field have made some fascinating discoveries in recent years. Several documents with mathematical focuses have been found, some dating as far back as 1990 CA. These include the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, the Kahun Papyri, the Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll, the Berlin Papyrus, the Lahun Mathematical Papyri, and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. The majority of these documents contain basic mathematical problems and solutions, which has led many researchers to believe they were used in some form of schooling or teaching.

The Egyptians are thought to be some of the first people to use fractions as well. Though they wrote and notated their fractions differently than the people of today do, it is very clear that they are one and the same. Tables have even been found that are thought to have been used to help make fraction solving and understanding easier. The Egyptian were also able to change fractions into the sum of unit fractions, a mathematical practice still taught today.

Obviously, there is a lot that can be learned from studying the fascinating history of the Egyptians. In addition to their mathematical discoveries, they paved the way in areas of science and language as well. Anyone who is interested in understanding this fascinating culture can learn much from reading on our site, Arithmetic.com, which is one of the most informative sites on the topic. Even those who do not have a particular interest in this subject should be grateful for their mathematical pursuits.

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]]>Different pieces of Chinese Math History fall into different categories, often based on where or when the people who practiced that form of mathematics lived. One such example is the Qin Dynasty mathematics. This mathematical system is responsible for developing a system of weights and making the vast engineering projects of the Chinese people possible. The statues, temples, and shrines that existed during that time period could not possibly have been built without mathematics, and quite advanced mathematics at that. Today, many researchers still study to try and determine what mathematical concepts the ancient people used to build these great establishments.

The Han Dynasty is where the first place value decimal system was invented. It is believed that the ancient Chinese people used a special board and a set of rods to understand the concept. They would use nine different symbols and a blank space on the board to indicate 0. This is also where an understanding of pi (3.14) was first developed and great advancements in ancient astronomy were made. Many even speculate that the ancient Chinese had a better understanding of the sky, stars, and planets than we do even today, undoubtedly a very impressive feat and would that would not be possible without a highly advanced mathematical understanding.

When the Tang Dynasty came into existence, mathematical understanding was even more advanced. Math was taught in schools and cubic equations were well understood for the first time. The Chinese also took it upon themselves to translate and use the Indian mathematics book written by Aryabhata, allowing for greater understanding and clarification. By the end of the dynasty, they were very advanced in solid geometry, algebra and algebraic theorems, and binomial theorems. From here on, the Chinese just continued to grow and expand their knowledge until they became almost as well educated as some of the scholars of today. Sadly, it is impossible to go back in time and understand how the Chinese gained their knowledge, but it can be studied at Arithmetic.com. This study bring gratitude for those who paved the way for our modern mathematical endeavors.

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]]>Babylonian Math History truly began when the people developed their numbers system. This system is still considered to be more advanced than the one most people use today. The system was positional and used a base of 60.This base had effects on time, which is why an “hour” is 60 minutes and a “minute” is sixty seconds. The Babylonians also constructed tables, which are very similar to the multiplication tables still in common use today. Though Babylonian numerals looked quite different than common numbers, they still helped to design modern mathematical systems. Depictions of these numbers can be easily found for those who are interested in seeing them. They resemble Roman numerals somewhat but are very distinctive, making it easy for researchers to pick out real tablets from the period and the region.

While many ancient and highly advanced mathematicians likely contributed to the Babylonian understanding of mathematics, very few of their names are actually known.One mathematician believed to have made very important contributions is named Nabu-rimanni, who is believed to have lived around 490 BC. Likewise, another ancient mathematician believed to have been pivotal to mathematics developments was Kidinu, who was believed to have been born in 480 BC, approximately. Most likely, these and other mathematicians worked closely together to develop many of the numbers and formulas that are used today. How exactly they did it or where they gained their understanding, however, is unknown.

Some of the many things that people today have to thank the Babylonians for are the calendar, units of measurement including length, volume, and weight, the 360 degree circle, knowledge of lunar eclipses, square roots, and exponents. Obviously, the Babylonians were a fascinating people, and studying about them here on Arithmetic.com offers many insights into their culture. It is so important for modern people to look back on the contributions of this amazing society and to ponder what can be learned from them and their inventions. Today’s society and mathematical understanding would not be nearly as advanced or coherent if it had not been for the Babylonians. The people of today are forever indebted to them.

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]]>Arabic Math History as we know it got its earliest origins when a mathematician named Al-Khwarizmi began to study and understand the mathematical subject now known as algebra. The Greeks of this time were busy studying geometry, and the discovery and understanding of algebra was an entirely new and revolutionary way of viewing mathematical study. The concepts of rational and irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes, and applied mathematics were made possible by this study. Of course, a full understanding didn’t come all at once. It would take many years before another mathematician of the day, Al-Karaji, stepped up and made discoveries that allowed algebra to stand on its own, completely free of geometrical studies. Al-Karaji is responsible for first understanding monomials and the rules for products of monomials.

The Arabic people were also responsible for developing several different types of counting. One of these is known as finger reckoning arithmetic, a topic that has always been widely understood here at Arithemtic.com. This counting system, as the name suggests, was based on the fingers and was used widely in the business world. The Arabic people even went so far as to create numerals going from one to ten. Another such system was the sexagesimal system, which used certain combinations of letters from the Arabic alphabet to indicate numbers. It is believed, however, that this system was copied from a similar Babylonian system. It was mainly used in astronomical studies. The final and most important counting system was the Indian numeral system which basically invented arithmetic as we know it today. This system utilized Indian numerals, fractions, and even the complex decimal place value system. How they gained such an understanding at so ancient a time is still being explored by researchers today.

Obviously, the Arabic people have been severely underestimated in their contributions to modern mathematics. However, we know have greater understanding today which allows us to more fully appreciate the importance and magnitude of their mathematical discoveries and the many societal contributions.

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